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Objectives: Providing instructions relating components of I.C. engine, tractor, component and

its mechanics.

Contents: Introduction: History of engine development, engine cycles, principles of operation,

types of engine, principal parts of engine: Functions, constructions, cylinder, cylinder heads,

liner, crank case, piston, connecting rod, crank shaft, clutch, flywheel, valves and their operation, valve mechanism. Fuel system: Major components of fuel system (petrol/disease), carburetor, fuel injection pump, njector/nozzles, electronic fuel injection, governing system, trouble shooting, calibration of fuel injection pump. Ignition system: types of ignition, spark, magneto and compression ignition, induction coils, distributor, spark plug, contact-breaker point, condenser, trouble shooting. Cooling system: Types, principle of operation, parts of air/water cooling system, line diagram, radiator, thermostat, water pump, fan, engine heating, repair and maintenance, types of coolants. Lubrication system: Types, principle of operation, components of lubrication system, line diagram, types of lubricants, trouble shooting. Electrical system: A.C and D.C. voltage, alternator/dynamo, battery, battery charging and maintenance, self starter, electrical gauges and controls, line diagram, repair and maintenance. Intake and exhaust system: air intake system, air cleaner, super charger, turbo charger, inter-cooling, and construction of intake and exhaust manifolds, mufflers, flue gases.

Practical:

Study of main components of engine and engine types

Study of valve system and its adjustments

Demonstration of fuel system, cooling sys and electrical system of tractor.

Measurement of air pressure/air fuel ration in each cylinder engine.

Fuel injector, pump adjustment and calibration.

Demonstration of engine, lubrication system.

Servicing of a single cylinder diesel engine.

Removal of air lock f a diesel engine.

Battery testing for charging/discharging.


Objectives

 Enable the students to meet their real-life communication needs.

Course Contents

Paragraph writing: Practice in writing a good, unified and coherent paragraph

Essay writing: Introduction ; CV and job application

Translation skills: Urdu to English

Study skills : Skimming and scanning, intensive and extensive, and speed reading, summary and précis writing and comprehension

Academic skills : Letter/memo writing, minutes of meetings, use of library and internet; Presentation skills: Personality development (emphasis on content, style and pronunciation)

Course Contents

Myths and Realities of Evolution

Microevolution

Speciation

Macroevolution

Level of Organization

Plants: Tissues, Nutrition and Transport, Reproduction, Growth and Development

Animals: Tissue, Organ System and Homeostasis, Information Flow and Neuron, Nervous System, Circulation and Immunity, Nutrition and Respiration, Reproduction and Development

Ecology and Behavior

            Ecosystems

            Biosphere

            Social Interactions

            Community Interactions

            Human Impact on Biosphere

            Environment Conservation


This is an introductory course on Information and Communication Technologies. Topics include ICT terminologies, hardware and software components, the internet and world wide web, and ICT based applications.

After completing this course, a student will be able to:

·        Understand different terms associated with ICT

·        Identify various components of a computer system

·        Identify the various categories of software and their usage

·        Define the basic terms associated with communications and networking

·        Understand different terms associated with the Internet and World Wide Web.

·        Use various web tools including Web Browsers, E-mail clients and search utilities.

·        Use text processing, spreadsheets and presentation tools

·        Understand the enabling/pervasive features of ICT

Course Contents:

·       Basic Definitions & Concepts

·       Hardware: Computer Systems & Components

·       Storage Devices, Number Systems

·       Software: Operating Systems, Programming and Application Software

·       Introduction to Programming, Databases and Information Systems

·       Networks

·       Data Communication

·       The Internet, Browsers and Search Engines

·       The Internet: Email, Collaborative Computing and Social Networking

·       The Internet: E-Commerce

·       IT Security and other issues

·       Project Week

·       Review Week


Objectives:

At the completion of this course, the students will be able to

Describe philosophy of rural development program

Identify the key development programs

Theory:

Concept, Philosophy, importance and objectives of rural development. Main approaches/programs of rural development in Pakistan. i.e VAID, basic democracies, rural works program, IRPD, Social action program, village cooperatives, supervised credit schemes, participatory rural development projects, community based organization. Current rural development programs: rural support program and rural development programs of NGOs. A critical analysis of current government plans and policies for rural development. Emerging trends of rural development in Pakistan.


Objectives

To enable students to understand: 

Basic concepts of genetics.  Mechanism of heredity, Chemical and molecular nature of nucleic acids.

Theory

Definition of genetics, concepts of heredity and variation. Cell and cell divisions. Mendelian genetics: chromosome theory of heredity, various genotypic and phenotypic ratios and their modifications. Differences between allelic and non-allelic interactions (epistasis), illustration of epistasis with suitable examples. Pleiotropy and multiple allelism. Multiple factor hypothesis. Linkage and crossing over. Sex determination: sex linked and sex influenced traits. Chromosomal aberrations. Nucleic acids: nature, structure and function. Classical vs modern concepts of gene.

Practical

Study of cell divisions and gametogenesis. Calculation of monohybrid and dihybrid ratios. Numerical examples relating to gene interaction, multiple alleles and multiple factor inheritance. Calculation of linkage from test cross and F 2 data.


Objectives: To acquaint the students with the basics of plant protection

Theory

Introduction, Importance and scope. The concept of pest, predator, parasites, parasitoids and pathogens. Introduction to plant pests: insect, vertebrates, pathogens, weeds, parasitic plant, nemotides and mites. Losses and damages caused by pests. Methods of pest control (Cultural, mechanical, physical, biological, legislative, genetical, bio-pesticides, and chemicals). Plat Protection equipment. Introduction to integrated crop management and integrated pest management (ICM and IPM). Biotechnology in plant protection.

Practical:

Collection, preservation and identification of pests of field crop, fruits, vegetables and their natural enemies. Field/lab demonstration of damages and lossess caused by major pests. Use of plant protection equipment.


Objectives

To prepare the students, not majoring in mathematics, with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.

Course Outline

Preliminaries: Real-number line, functions and their graphs, solution of equations involving absolute values, inequalities.

Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function, left-hand and right-hand limits, continuity, continuous functions.

Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions, differentiation of polynomial, rational and transcendental functions, derivatives.

Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals, integration by substitution, integration by parts, change of variables in indefinite integrals.


PAKISTAN STUDIES (Compulsory)

Course Code: Bot-312

Credit Hours: 2(2+0)

Marks Distribution: 10 +10+ 30

Introduction/Objectives

 Develop vision of historical perspective, government, politics, contemporary Pakistan, ideological background of Pakistan.

 Study the process of governance, national development, issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan.

Course Outline

1. Historical Perspective

a. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

b. Factors leading to Muslim separatism

c. People and Land

i. Indus Civilization

ii. Muslim advent

iii. Location and geo-physical features.

2. Government and Politics in Pakistan

Political and constitutional phases:

a. 1947-58

b. 1958-71

c. 1971-77

d. 1977-88

e. 1988-99

f. 1999 onward

3. Contemporary Pakistan

a. Economic institutions and issues

b. Society and social structure

c. Ethnicity

d. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges

e. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan


Books Recommended

1. Burki, Shahid Javed. State & Society in Pakistan, The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980.

2. Akbar, S. Zaidi. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2000.

3. S.M. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Pakistan‟s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1993.

4. Mehmood, Safdar. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Lahore, 1994.

5. Wilcox, Wayne.The Emergence of Banglades., Washington: American Enterprise, Institute of Public Policy Research, 1972.

6. Mehmood, Safdar. Pakistan Kayyun Toota, Lahore: Idara-e-Saqafat-e-Islamia, Club Road,

7. Amin, Tahir. Ethno - National Movement in Pakistan, Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad.

8. Ziring, Lawrence. Enigma of Political Development. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd, 1980.

9. Zahid, Ansar. History & Culture of Sindh. Karachi: Royal Book Company, 1980.

10. Afzal, M. Rafique. Political Parties in Pakistan, Vol. I, II & III. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research, 1998.

11. Sayeed, Khalid Bin. The Political System of Pakistan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967.

12. Aziz, K.K. Party, Politics in Pakistan, Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research, 1976.

13. Muhammad Waseem, Pakistan Under Martial Law, Lahore: Vanguard, 1987.

14. Haq, Noor ul. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research, 1993.

ENGLISH-II

Course code: Bot-321

Credit Hours: 3(3+0)

Distribution of Marks: 20+ 20 +60

Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs.

Course Contents

Paragraph writing

Practice in writing a good, unified and coherent paragraph

Essay writing

Introduction

CV and job application

Translation skills

Urdu to English

Study skills

Skimming and scanning, intensive and extensive, and speed reading, summary and précis writing and comprehension

Academic skills

Letter/memo writing, minutes of meetings, use of library and internet

Presentation skills

Personality development (emphasis on content, style and pronunciation)

Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review

Recommended books:

Communication Skills

a) Grammar

1. Practical English Grammar by A.J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet. Exercises 2. Third edition. Oxford University Press 1986. ISBN 0 19 431350 6.

b) Writing

1. Writing. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin, Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking).

2. Writing. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos, introduction to presentations, descriptive and argumentative writing).

c) Reading

1. Reading. Advanced. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1991. ISBN 0 19 453403 0.

2. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan

Study Skills by Riachard Yorky.

MATHEMATICS-II

Course Code: Bot-323

Credit Hours: 3(3+0)

Marks Distribution: 20+20+60

Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students, not majoring in mathematics, with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.

Course Outline:

Preliminaries: Real-number line, functions and their graphs, solution of equations involving absolute values, inequalities.

Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function, left-hand and right-hand limits, continuity, continuous functions.

Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions, differentiation of polynomial, rational and transcendental functions, derivatives.

Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals, integration by substitution, integration by parts, change of variables in indefinite integrals.

Recommended Books:

Anton H, Bevens I, Davis S, Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition), 2005, John Wiley, New York

Stewart J, Calculus (3rd edition), 1995, Brooks/Cole (suggested text)

Swokowski EW, Calculus and Analytic Geometry, 1983, PWS-Kent Company, Boston

Thomas GB, Finney AR, Calculus (11th edition), 2005, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Ma, USA

PRINCIPLES IN ANIMAL LIFE-II

Course Code: Bot-324

Credit Hours: 3(2+1)

Marks Distribution: 20+ 20+ 40+ 20

Course Contents

Cell Division: Cell cycles: Mitosis and meiosis; control of the cell cycle. Inheritance Patterns: Mendelian genetics; inheritance patterns; gene, structure, chemical composition and types. Chromosomes and Gene Linkage: Eukaryotic chromosomes; linkage and crossing over; chromosomal aberrations.

Cellular Control: DNA: the genetic material; DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; control of gene expression in eukaryotes; gene mutation; recombinant DNA technologies and their applications.

Animal Behavior: Behaviour and its types, proximate and ultimate causes; anthropomorphism; development of behavior; learning; factors controlling animal behavior; communication; behavioral ecology; social behavior.

Evolution: A Historical Perspective: Theories of evolution: Natural selection Lamarckism and neo larmarckism, Darwinism and neo Darwinian.

Evolution and Gene Frequencies: Hardy-Weinberg principle; evolutionary mechanisms: population size, genetic drift, gene flow, de Vries mutation theory and rates of evolution, polymorphism; species and speciation; molecular evolution; mosaic evolution. 

Practicals 

1. Study of mitosis in onion root tip.

2. Study of meiosis in grasshopper testis (students should prepare the slide). 3. Problem based study of Mendelian ratio in animals.

4. Multiple alleles study in blood groups.

5. Survey study of a genetic factor in population and its frequency.

6. Study of karyotypes of Drosophila, mosquito.

7. Study of cytochemical detection of DNA in protozoa and avian blood cell. 8. Study to demonstrate nervous or endocrine basis of behavior (conditioned reflex or aggression or parental behavior).

9. Study to demonstrate social behaviour (documentary film be shown, honey bee, monkey group in a zoo).

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Course Code: Bot-325

Credit Hours: 3(2+1)

Marks Distribution: 20+ 20+ 40+ 20

Chemical Bonding:

Types of chemical bonding, ionic and covalent bonding, localized bond approach, theories of chemical bonding, valence bond theory (VBT), hybridization and resonance, prediction of molecular shapes using Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model, molecular orbital theory (MOT) applied to diatomic molecules, delocalized approach to bonding, bonding in electron deficient compounds,hydrogen bonding.

Acids and Bases:

Brief concepts of chemical equilibrium, acids and bases including soft and hard acids and bases (SHAB),concept of relative strength of acids and bases, significance of pH, pKa, pKb and buffer solutions, theory of indicators, solubility, solubility product, common ion effect and their industrial applications.

p-Block Elements:

Physical and chemical properties of p-block elements with emphasis on some representative compounds, inter-halogens, pseudo-halogens and polyhalides.

Chemistry of d-block elements and coordination complexes:

Back ground of coordination chemistry, nomenclature and structure of coordination complexes with coordination number 2-6, chelates and chelate effect, theories of coordination complexes, Werner's theory, valence bond theory (VBT), crystal field theory (CFT) and molecular orbital theory (MOT), Jahn-Teller theorem, magnetic properties, spectral properties, isomerism, stereochemistry, and stability constants of coordination complexes.

Chemistry of f-block elements:

i. Lanthanides: General characteristics, occurrence, extraction and general principles of separation, electronic structure and position in the periodic table, lanthanides contraction, oxidation states, spectral and magnetic properties and uses.

ii. Actinides: General characteristics, electronic structure, oxidation state and position in the periodic table, half-life and decay law.

Recommended Books:

1. Shriver, D. F., Atkins, P. W., Langford, C. H., Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, (1994).

2. Cotton, F. A. and Wilkinson, G., Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed., John-Wiley & Sons, New York, (2007).

3. Huheey, J. E., Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 3rd ed., Harper International SI Edition, (2006).

4. House, J. E., Inorganic Chemistry, Academic Press. USA, (2008).

5. Lee, J. D., Concise Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Chapman and Hall, (1996).

6. Miessler, G. L., Tarr, D. A., Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed., Pearson Education, India, (2008).

7. Huheey, J. E., Kieter E. A., Keiter L. R., Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th ed., Benjamin-Cummings Pub Co., (1993).

8. Sharpe, A. G., Inorganic chemistry, 3rd ed., Pearson Education India, (1981).

PLANT SYSTEMATICS, ANATOMY AND DEVELOPMENT/EMBRYOLOGY

Course Code: Bot-326

Credit Hours: 4(3+1)

Marks Distribution: 20+20+40+20

Specific objectives of course: To understand 1- various systems of classification, identification and nomenclature of Angiosperms, 2- Structures and functions of tissues and organs at embryonic level.

Course outline:

a) Plant systematics

1. Introduction to Plant Systematics: aims, objectives and importance.

2. Classification: brief history of various systems of classification with emphasis on Takhtajan.

3. Brief introduction to nomenclature, importance of Latin names and binomial system with an introduction to International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN).Vienna code.

4. Morphology: a detailed account of various, Morphological characters root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, placentation and fruit types.

Diagnostic characters, economic importance and distribution pattern of the following families:

i. Ranunculaceae

ii. Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)

iii. Fabaceae (Leguminosae)

iv. Rosaceae

v. Euphorbiaceae

vi Cucurbitaceae

vii. Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

viii. Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)

ix. Asteraceae (Compositae)

x. Liliaceae (Sen. Lato)

b) Anatomy

1. Cell wall: structure and chemical composition

2. Concept, structure and function of various tissues like:

i. Parenchyma

ii. Collenchyma

iii. Sclerenchyma

iv. Epidermis (including stomata and trichomes)

v. Xylem

vi. Phloem

3. Meristem: types, stem and root apices

4. Vascular cambium

5. Structure and development of root, stem and leaf.

Primary and secondary growth of dicot stem, periderm

6. Characteristics of wood: diffuse porous and ring –porous, sap and heart wood, soft and hard wood, annual rings.

c) Development / Embryology

Early development of plant body:

1. Capsella bursa-pastoris

2. Structure and development of Anther Microsporogenesis

Microgametophyte

3. Structure of Ovule Megasporogenesis Megagametophyte

4. Endosperm formation

5. Parthenocarpy

6. Polyembryony

Lab Outline:

Anatomy and Embryology

1. Study of stomata, epidermis,

2. Tissues of primary body of plant

3. Study of xylem 3-dimensional plane of wood.

4. T.S of angiosperm stem and leaf.

5. Anatomy of germinating seeds

6. Study of pollens

Taxonomy

1. Identification of families given in syllabus with the help of keys.

2. Technical description of common flowering plants belonging to

3. families mentioned in theory syllabus.

4. Field trips shall be undertaken to study and collect local plants.

5. Students shall submit 40 fully identified herbarium specimens.

Recommended Books:

1 Mauseth, J.D. 1998. An Introduction to Plant Biology: Multimedia Enhanced. Jones and Bartlett Pub. UK

2. Moore, R.C., W.D. Clarke and Vodopich, D.S. 1998. Botany. McGraw Hill Company, U.S.A.

3. Raven, P.H., Evert, R.E. and Eichhorn, S.E. 1999. Biology of Plants. W.H. Freeman and Company Worth Publishers.

5. Stuessy, T.F. 1990. Plant Taxonomy. Columbia University Press, USA.

6. Lawrence, G.H.M. 1951 Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. MacMillan & Co. New York.

7. Panday, B.P. 2004. A textbook of Botany (Angiosperms). S. Chand and Co. New Delhi.

8. Raymond E, S. E. Eichhorn. 2005. Esau‟s Plant Anatomy. Meristems cells and tissues of the plant body, 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

9. Fahn, A. 1990. Plant Anatomy. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

10. Esau, K. 1960. Anatomy of Seed Plants. John Wiley, New York.

11. Maheshwari, P.1971. Embryology of Angiosperms, McGraw Hill.New York.

12. Eames A.J. and L.H Mac Daniels. 2002. An Introduction to Plant Anatomy. Tata-Mac Graw-Hill Publishing Company, Limited New Delhi.

13. Pullaiah, T. 2007. Taxonomy of Angiosperms. 3rd Edition Regency Publications, New Delhi.

14. Naik, V.N. 2005 Taxonomy of Angiosperms. 20th Reprint. Tata-Mac Graw-Hill Publishing Company, Limited New Delhi.

15. Rajput, M. T., S. S. Hassney and K. M. Khan. 1996. Plant Taxonomy. New Trends Computer Service, Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan

Journals / Periodicals: Pakistan Journal Of Botany, Taxon, Phyton.

Course Contents Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Classification of organic compounds; development of systematic nomenclature of organic compounds; IUPAC nomenclature of hydrocarbons and heteroatom functional groups. Localized and delocalized chemical bonding; concept of hybridization leading to bond angles, bond lengths, bond energies and shape of organic molecules; dipole moment; inductive and field effects; resonance; aromaticity; tautomerism; hyper conjugation; hydrogen bonding. Stereochemistry: Introduction to Stereochemistry, stereoisomerism, geometrical isomerism, E/Z notations, chirality, enantiomers and diastereomers, meso-compounds, optical isomerism, optical activity and specific rotation, R/S nomenclature, conformations and conformational analysis of ethane and cyclo- hexane. Organic Reactions and Mechanism: Detailed mechanism of aliphatic reactions including addition, substitution, and elimination reactions, concept of energy profile, transition state and intermediate. Recommended Books 1. Clayden, J., Greeves, N., Warren, S. and Wothers, P., “Organic Chemistry”, Oxford University Press, New York. 2. Loudon, G. M., “Organic Chemistry”, Oxford University Press, New York 3. Sorrell, T. N., “Organic Chemistry”, Viva Books Private Ltd., New Delhi. 4. Finar, I. L., “Organic Chemistry”, Vol. 1, Pearson Education, Delhi. 5. Carey, F. A., “Organic Chemistry”, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Advanced Chromatographic Techniques 

Introduction to chromatographic techniques: general theory of chromatographic separation. Optimizing chromatographic separations, Pressure chromatographic techniques: High performance, medium pressure, high pressure thin layer liquid, vacuum liquid, flash, centrifugal thin layer and gas chromatography. Liquid-liquid  chromatography techniques,  Paper electrophoresis, capillary zone electrophoresis. Gas chromatography. Ion-exchange chromatography, Application of chromatographic techniques to quantitative and qualitative analysis. 

Recommended Books:  

 

1.  K. Hosttetman, A. Marston and M. Hostettmann, Preparative chromatography 

Techniques, Springer (1997).  

2.  W.M.A Niessen and J. Van  der Greef, Liquid Chromatography-mass 

spectrometry: principles and applications, Marcel Dekker, New York (1992). 

3.  H.M. McNair and J.M. Miller, Basic Gas Chromatography, John Wiley & 

Sons, Inc. (1998).  

4.  D. Hage, Handbook of Affinity Chromatography, Hage David Saylor & 

Francis, Inc. (2005).  

5.  B. Kolb and L.S. Ettre, Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography: Theory and 

Practice, Wiley, John & Sons, Inc. (2006).  

6.  P.R. Brown, Advances in Chromatography, Vol. 41, E. Grushka (Ed.), Marcel 

Dekker (2001).  

7.  P.R. Brown, Advances in Chromatography, Vol. 40, E. Grushka (Ed.), Marcel 

Dekker (2000). 

8.  P.R. Brown, Advances in Chromatography, Vol. 37, E. Grushka (Ed.), Marcel 

Dekker (1997).  

9.  R.E. Ardrey, Liquid Chromatography  - Mass Spectrometry: An Introduction, 

John Wiley & Sons (2003). 

Research Methodologies 1. Introduction, Literature Review Research and types of research. Type of literature, sources of literature, use of modern techniques in literature review. Impact factor. 2. Academic writings Types, method, design, format, style, language, layout and application of publication. Use of modern techniques in academic writings, preparing synopsis, manuscript, thesis and reports. 3. Plagiarism Introduction, types of plagiarism, plagiarism policy. Identification and prevention of plagiarism using modern techniques. Use of anti-plagiarism software/website and its application. 4. Laboratory Safety Guidelines: Research ethics, chemical handling, substances with a hazardous nature, exposure limits, common safety symbols, suggested shelf storage pattern for organics and in-organics, recommended safety and emergency equipment for the Laboratory. 5. Use of Computer Based Software in Chemistry Chem Draw, MS-NIST, DNP, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, IUPAC, Chem Bio Office etc. Recommended Books: 1. Research Methodology, S.C.Sinha & A.K. Dhiman Ess Ess Publication. 2. Research Methodology, Ranjeet Kumar, 3rd Edition, 2011, SAGE Publications Ltd. Landon. 3. Research Methodology for Biological Sciences N.Gurumani, MJP Publisher. 4. Practical Skills in Chemistry, J. R. Dean, A. M.Jones, D. Holmes, R. Reed, J. Weyers and A Jones, Pearson Education Ltd. [ Prentice Hall] (2002). 5. Scientific, Social, Surveys and research P.V. Young & C.F. Schmid Prentice- Hall of India Pvt.Ltd. New Delhi. 6. Essentials of computational chemistry by C. J. Cramer. 7. Fundamentals of analytical chemistry by D. A. Skoog, D. M. West & F. J. Hooler. 8. Computers and Their Applications to Chemistry, by Ramesh Kumari, 2002. 9. The Little Book of Plagiarism, Leeds Metropolitan University,2013. 10. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide, CPSC Publication No. 390. (October 2006).

Course code: MT104 

Course Name: Applied Physics (Maths & Science Foundation IV)

Credit Hours: 3 

Prerequisites: None 

Course Content:  Electric force and its applications and related problems , conservation of charge, charge quantization, Electric fields due to point charge and lines of force. Ring of charge, Disk of charge, A point charge in an electric field, Dipole in a n electric field, The flux of vector field, The flux of electric field, Gauss’ Law, Application of Gauss’ Law, Spherically symmetric charge distribution, A charge isolated conductor, Electric potential energy, Electric potentials, Calculating the potential from the field and related problem Potential due to point and continuous charge distribution, Potential due to dipole, equi-potential surfaces, Calculating the field from the potential , Electric current, Current density, Resistance, Resistivity and conductivity, Ohm’s law and its applications, The Hall effect, The magnetic force on a current, The Biot- Savart law, Line of B, Two parallel conductors, Amperes’ s Law, Solenoid, Toroids, Faraday’s experiments, Faraday’s Law of Induction, Lenz’s law, Motional emf, Induced electric field, Induced electric fields, The basic equation of electromagnetism, Induced Magnetic field, The displacement current, Reflection and Refraction of light waves, Total internal reflection, Two source interference, Double Slit interference, related problems, Interference from thin films, Diffraction and the wave theory, related problems, Single-Slit Diffraction, related problems, Polarization of electromagnetic waves, Polarizing sheets, related problems.  

Teaching Methodology:  Lecturing, Written Assignments, Project, Experiments, Report Writing

Course Assessment:  Sessional Exam, Home Assignments, Quizzes, Experiments, Final Exam  Reference Materials:  

 

1. Fundamentals of Physics (Extended), 10th edition, Resnick and Walker 

 2. Narciso Garcia, Arthur Damask, Steven Schwarz., “Physics for Computer Science Students”, Springer Verlag, 1998  

 

Course code: MT103 

Course Name: Probability and Statistics (Math & Science Foundation III)

Credit Hours: 3 

Prerequisites: None 

Course Outline: Introduction to Statistics, Descriptive Statistics, Statistics in decision making, Graphical representation of Data Stem-and Lead plot, Box-Cox plots, measures of central tendencies and dispersion, moments of frequency distribution; Counting techniques, introduction to probability, sample space, events, laws of probability, Conditional probability and Baye’s theorem with application to random variable (Discrete and continuous) Binomial, Poisson, Geometric, Negative Binomial Distributions; Exponential Gamma and Normal distributions; Regression and Correlation, Estimation and testing of hypotheses, use of elementary statistical packages for explanatory Data analysis. Reference Materials: 

1. Probability & Statistics for Engineers & Scientists Ronald, W. Myers, Y.2008”, 8th edition. Prentice Hall Publisher. 

2. Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences Lay, L.Devore. 2003. Duxbury Publishers. 3. Statistical Data Analysis. G. Cowan.1998. Clarendon and Oxford 

Course code: MT102

Course Name: Multivariate Calculus (Maths & Science foundation II) 

Credit Hours: 3 

Prerequisites: Calculus and Analytical Geometry 

Course Outline: Functions of Several Variables and Partial Differentiation.Multiple Integrals, Line and Surface Integrals.Green’s and Stoke’s Theorem. Fourier Series: periodic functions, Functions of any period P-2L, Even & odd functions, Half Range expansions, Fourier Transform; Laplace Transform, Z-Transform.  Reference Materials: 1. Multivariable Calculus, 6th edition James, Stewart 2007 Cengage Learningpublishers. 2. Calculus and Analytical Geometry, 6th edition. Swokowski, Olinick andPence.1994.Thomson Learning EMEA, Ltd. 3. Multivariable Calculus, 5th edition Howard, A. Albert, H. 1995, John Wiley.   

Course code: HU104 

Course Name: Pakistan Studies (General education) 

Credit Hours: 2 

Prerequisites: None 

Course Outline: 

Historical background of Pakistan: Muslim society in Indo-Pakistan, the movement led by the societies, the downfall of Islamic society, the establishment of British Raj- Causes and consequences. Political evolution of Muslims in the twentieth century: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan; Muslim League; Nehru; Allama Iqbal: Independence Movement; Lahore Resolution; Pakistan culture and society, Constitutional and Administrative issues, Pakistan and its geo-political dimension, Pakistan and International Affairs, Pakistan and the challenges ahead. 

Reference Material: 1. The Emergence of Pakistan, Chaudary M., 1967 2. The making of Pakistan, Aziz. 1976 

Course code: HU103 Course Name: Communication and Presentation skills Credit Hours: 3 Objective: Teaching Methodology: Lecturing, Written Assignments, Project, Report Writing, Final Exam Course Assessment: Sessional Exam, Home Assignments, Quizzes, Presentation, Final Exam Reference Materials: 1. Practical Business English, Collen Vawdrey, 1993, ISBN = 0256192740 2. Effective Communication Skills: The Foundations for Change, John Nielsen, 2008, ISBN = 1453506748

Course Name: Object Oriented Programming (Computing Core Course)

Credit Hours: 4 (3+1)

Prerequisites: Programming Fundamentals

Course Outline:

Introduction to object oriented design, history and advantages of object oriented design, introduction to object oriented programming concepts, classes, objects, data encapsulation, constructors, destructors, access modifiers, const vs non-const functions, static data members & functions, function overloading, operator overloading, identification of classes and their relationships, composition, aggregation, inheritance, multiple inheritance, polymorphism, abstract classes and interfaces, generic programming concepts, function & class templates, standard template library, object streams, data and object serialization using object streams, exception handling.


Course code BCS425

COURSE NAME: Web Programming

Credit Hours:3(2+1)

HTML BASIC

Introduction .Web designing and publishing process. WWW, Internet, Website,

Domain Name , Client side, Server Side, Introduction various client side and

server side technologies, HTML Introduction, HTML Get started, HTML Basic,

HTML Headings, HTML paragraph HTML Formatting, HTML Element, HTML

Attributes, HTML links, HTML images, HTML Tables, HTML lists, HTML Forms,

HTML Layout, HTML Frames, HTML Fonts

BASIC PHP

PHP Introduction , PHP install, PHP Syntax, PHP Variables, PHP String, PHP

IF…. Else, PHP switching, PHP Arrays, PHP Looping, PHP Functions PHP

Forms, PHP $-GET, $_post

ADVANCE PHP

PHP function, PHP include, PHP File, PHP files upload, PHP cooking, PHP

Sessions

PHP AND MYSQL

MYSQL introduction, SQL Syntax, SQL Select, SQL Where , SQL And &O ,SQL

Order by, SQL insert, SQL update, SQL delete, SQL like, SQL in, SQL

between, SQL alias, SQL joins,

SQL inner join, SQL right join , SQL left join, SQL create DB, SQL create table

 BOOTSTRAP

 Dreamweaver.

 AJAX

Course code MCC441

Course Name: Differential Equations

Credit Hours: 3 (3, 0)

Prerequisites: Calculus and Analytical Geometry

Course Outline:

Ordinary Differential Equations of the First Order: Geometrical Considerations,

Isoclines, Separable Equations, Equations Reducible to Separable Form, Exact

Differential Equations, Integrating Factors, Linear First-Order Differential

Equations, variation of Parameters. Ordinary Linear Differential Equations;

Homogeneous Linear Equations of the Second Order, Homogeneous Second

Order Equations with Constant Coefficients, General Solution, Real Roots,

Complex Roots, Double Root of the Characteristic Equation, Differential

Operators, Cauchy Equation, Homogeneous Linear Equations of Arbitrary Order,

Homogeneous Linear Equations of Arbitrary Order with Constant Coefficients,

Non-homogeneous Linear Equations. Modelling of Electrical Circuits.Systems of

Differential Equations.Series Solutions of Differential Equations. Partial

Differential Equations: Method of Separation of variables, wave, Heat & Laplace

equations and their solutions by Fourier series method.

Course code BCS422

Course Name: Java programming(UE)

Credit Hours: 3 (2+1)

Course Outline:

Introduction to Java History of Java, Features of Java Environment. How it works,

comparison, between Java and c++, Basic object oriented concepts,Modifiers for(class,

methods and variables)Basic java data types, syntax, writing sample java console

applications, control structures(if, if-else, nested if- else , switch, for, while, dowile)

Example of java applications.Package and interfaces, Overview of java packages,

What is java package? Packages levels, Why we use packages? Creating packages( syntax

of packages) Default package. Example of packages, What is interface? Why we use

interface? Syntax and example of interface. Comparison between interface and

abstract class. Java exception handling overview of exceptions, error and exceptions,

catching a runtime exception, Handling Multiple Exception, the finally clause, the throw

clause, When to use Exception, when not to use Exceptions, java multithreading,

overview of multithreading, the thread control methods, the thread life cycle,

implementation of multithreading (Extending a thread classes)Applets, basic of java

applets, Advantages and Disadvantages of java Applets, life cycle of java Applet,

Examples.AWT the java abstract window toolkit (AWT) package. Implantation of AWT

controls.Servlets client side vs. server side technologies, different server side

technologies, introduction to servlets, servlets life cycle, software requirements,

developing basic servlets example, dotGet, SSI, Session management.

Course code BCS421

Course Name: Database Systems

Credit Hours: 4 (3+1)

Prerequisites: Data Structures and Algorithms

Course Outline:

Basic database concepts, Database Architecture, DB Design Life Cycle, Schema

Architecture, Conceptual, Logical and physical database Modelling and design,

Entity Relationship diagram (ERD), Enhanced ERD ,Relational data model,

mapping ERD to relational model, Functional dependencies and Normalization,

Relational Algebra, Structured Query language (SQL), Transaction processing,

concurrency control and recovery techniques, Query optimization concepts.

Course code: CS205

Course Name: Design & Analysis of Algorithm (Computing Core Course)

Credit Hours: 3

Prerequisites: Data Structures & Algorithms

Course Content:

Introduction; role of algorithms in computing, Analysis on nature of input and size of

input Asymptotic notations; Big-O, Big Ω, Big Θ, little-o, little-ω, Sorting Algorithm

analysis, loop invariants, Recursion and recurrence relations; Algorithm Design

Techniques, Brute Force Approach, Divide-and-conquer approach; Merge, Quick

Sort, Greedy approach; Dynamic programming; Elements of Dynamic Programming,

Search trees; Heaps; Hashing; Graph algorithms, shortest paths, sparse graphs,

String matching; Introduction to complexity classes;

Teaching Methodology:

Lectures, Written Assignments, Semester Project.

Course Assessment:

Sessional Exam, Home Assignments, Quizzes, Project, Final Exam

Reference Materials:

1. Introduction to Algorithms (3rd edition) by Thomas H. Corman, Charles E.

Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest and Clifford Stein

2. Algorithm Design, (1st edition, 2013/2014), Jon Kleinberg, Eva Tardos,

3. Algorithms, (4th edition, 2011), Robert Sedgewick, Kevin Wayne


Course code: CS206

Course Name: Numerical Computing

Credit Hours: 3

Prerequisites: Calculus and Analytical Geometry (MT101)

Course Outline:

The concepts of efficiency, reliability and accuracy of a method; Minimising

computational errors; Theory of Differences, Difference Operators, Difference Tables,

Forward Differences, Backward Differences and Central Differences. Mathematical

Preliminaries, Solution of Equations in one variable, Interpolation and Polynomial

Approximation, Numerical Differentiation and Numerical Integration, Initial Value

Problems for Ordinary Differential Equations, Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems,

Iterative Techniques in Matrix Algebra, Solution of non-linear equations.

Reference Materials:

1. Numerical Methods in Scientific Computing by Germund, D. Åke, B.

2. Numerical Methods for Scientific Computing by J. H. Heinbockel.

3. Numerical Analysis by I. A. Khubaza.

4. Numerical Analysis and Programming by Shan S Kuo.

5. Numerical Analysis by Berden, F.

6. Numerical Analysis by Gerald.

Course code: CS208

Course Name: Software Engineering

Credit Hours: 3

Prerequisites: Data Structures and Algorithms (CS202)

Course Outline:

Overview of SE, Practice & Myths; the Software Processes, Generic Process Models:

Framework Activity, Task Set, Process Patterns, Process Improvement, CMM

Prescriptive, Process Models: Waterfall Model, Incremental Process Model, Evolutionary

Process Model; Specialized Process Models: Component Based Development, the

Formal Methods Models, Agile Development; Business Information Systems:

Components, Types, and Evaluating methods. SDLC: Phases, System Planning,

Preliminary Investigation, SWOT Analysis. The Importance of Strategic Planning;

Evaluation of Systems Requests, Requirements Engineering. Difference between

Structured Analysis and Object Oriented Analysis, Difference between FDD Diagrams &

UML Diagrams; Data & Process Modeling; Diagrams: Data Flow, Context, Conventions,

Detailed Level DFD’s; Leveling and Balancing. Logical Versus Physical Models. The Design

Process; Architecture Design Elements, Interface Design Elements, Component Level

Design Elements, Deployments Design Elements; System Architecture, Architectural

Styles. User Interface Design. WebApps Interface Design; Software Quality Assurance.

Validation Testing, System Testing; Internal and External View of Testing. Project

Management. Risk Management; Maintenance and Reengineering.

Reference Materials:

1. Software Engineering 8E by Ian Sommerville, Addison Wesley; 8th Edition(2006). ISBN-

10: 0321313798

2. Systems Analysis and Design by Gary B. Shelly, Thomas J. Cashman andHarry J.

Rosenblatt, Course Technology; 7th Edition (2007). ISBN-10:1423912225

3. Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach by Roger S. Pressman,McGraw-Hill

Science/Engineering/Math; 7th Edition (2009). ISBN-10:0073375977.

Course code: CS207

Course Name: Theory of Automata (Computing Core Course)

Credit Hours: 3

Prerequisites: Discrete Structures

Course Content:

Finite State Models: Language definitions preliminaries, Regular expressions/Regular

languages, Finite automata (FAs), Transition graphs (TGs), NFAs, Kleene’s theorem,

Transducers (automata with output), Pumping lemma and non-regular language

Grammars and PDA: CFGs, Derivations, derivation trees and ambiguity, Simplifying

CFLs, Normal form grammars and parsing, Decidability, Context sensitive languages,

grammars and linear bounded automata (LBA), Chomsky’s hierarchy of grammars

Turing Machines Theory: Turing machines, Post machine, Variations on TM, TM

encoding, Universal Turing Machine, Defining Computers by TMs.

Teaching Methodology:

Lectures, Written Assignments, Practical labs, Semester Project, Presentations

Course Assessment:

Sessional Exam, Home Assignments, Quizzes, Project, Presentations, Final Exam

Reference Materials:

1. Introduction to computer theory, Daniel I. A. Cohen, 2nd Edition

2. Automata, Computability and Complexity: Theory and Applications, by Elaine

Rich, 2011

3. An Introduction to Formal Languages and Automata, by Peter Linz, 4th edition,

Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2006

4. Theory of Automata, Formal Languages and Computation, by S. P. Eugene, Kavier,

2005, New Age Publishers

Course code BCS526

Course Name: Advanced software engineering

Credit Hours: 3

Prerequisites: Data Communications and Computer Networks

Course Outline:

Introduction to computer_ based system Engineering; Project management Software

specification, Requirements Engineering, System Modeling, Requirements Specification;

Software prototyping, software design Architecture design, object_ oriented design,

UML modeling, Function_ oriented design, user interface design, quality assurance,

process and configuration management , introduction to advanced issues: Reusability,

patterns, Assignments and projects on various stages and deliverables of SDLC.

7th semester

Course code BCS525

Course Name: Fundamentals of Data Mining

Credit Hours: 3

Prerequisites: Database Systems

Course Outline:

Concepts of Data mining, data pre-processing and pre-mining,(noisy and missing

data, data normalization and discretization), outlier detection, Data mining

learning methods, Data mining classes (association rule mining, clustering,

classification), fundamental of other algorithms related to data mining(fuzzy logic,

genetic algorithm and neural network), decision trees, rules, patterns and trends.

Course code

Course code BCS524

Course Name: Distributed Databases

Credit Hours: 3

Prerequisites: Advanced Database Systems

Course Outline:

Introduction to distributed database systems (DDBMS), architectural models,

DDBMS architecture, distributed database design strategies, design issues,

fragmentation, allocation, view management, data security, semantic integrity

control, distributed query processing problems, query decomposition, localization

of distributed data, query optimization, join ordering in fragment queries,

distributed query optimization algorithms, transaction processing, concurrency

control mechanisms, serializability theory, locked-based and timestamp-based

algorithms, optimistic algorithms, deadlock management, reliability concepts and

measures, failures in DDBMS, local reliability protocols, distributed reliability

protocols, dealing with site failures, Network partitioning, database integration,

data processing in multi-databases and inter-operability issues.

Course code BCS523

Course Name: Computer Graphics

Credit Hours: 3

Prerequisites: Discrete Structures

Course Outline:

Computer Graphics Introduction, Data, Images, and Computer Graphics,

Application of computer Graphics.Geometry, Transformations and Computer

Graphics.PlaneRotations.Colour in the Physical Universe. Colour Systems and

Computer Graphics. Image Abstraction Paradigms.Graphics and Planar

Graphics Objects.Digital Geometry Processing. Objects Hierarchy. Modeling and

Representation.Classification, Partitioning, and Clipping.Visibility and

Algorithms.The Nature of light.Illumination.Sampling and Ray Tracing.Mapping

Graphics Objects.

Course code BCS522

Course Name: Information Security

Credit Hours: 3

Prerequisites: Data Communication and Computer Networks

Course Outline:

Basic notions of confidentiality, integrity, availability; authentication models;

protection models; security kernels; Encryption, Hashing and Digital Signatures;

audit; intrusion detection and response; database security, hostbased and

network-based security issues operational security issues; physical security

issues; personnel security; policy formation and enforcement; access controls;

information flow; legal and social issues; identification and authentication in local

and distributed systems; classification and trust modeling; risk assessment

Course code BCS521

Course Name: Digital Signal Processing

Credit Hours: 3

Prerequisite: Data Communications and Computer Networks

Course Outline:

Introduction to signals, Analog and digital/discrete signal, Applications of DSP,

Energy of a signal, Transformation Of independent variable, Signal types,

Mathematical representation of periodic signal, Euler’s relation, Difference b/w

continuous time and discrete time signal, Unit impulse and unit step and their

relationship, Convolution Sum, Impulse response of an LTI system,

Examples of an LTI system, Properties of an LTI system (Commulative property,

Distributive property, Associative property, LTI system with and without memory,

Invertability, Causality, Stability, Step response of an LTI system),Fourier series

representation of periodic signal, Examples of Fourier series representation

Course code: CS306

Course Name: Computer Networks

Credit Hours: 4(3-1)

Prerequisites: None

Course Outline:

Data Communication concepts, Analogue and digital Transmission, Noise, Media,

Encoding, Asynchronous and Synchronous transmission. Network system architectures

(OSI, TCP/IP), Error Control, Flow Control, Data Link Protocols, Bridging.Local Area

Networks and MAC Layer protocols, Multiplexing, Switched and IP Networks, Internetworking,

Routing. Transport layer protocols TCP, UDP and SCTP. Application Layer

Protocols.Wireless LANs. Lab exercises using tools such as Wireshark, OpNet, Packet

tracer etc.

Reference Materials:

1. Data Communications and Networking, by Behrouz A. Forouzan,McGraw-Hill Science;

5th edition (February 17, 2012). ISBN-10:0073376221

2. Data and Computer Communications by William Stallings, Prentice Hall;9th Edition

(August 13, 2010). ISBN-10: 0131392050

3. Computer Networks by Andrew S. Tanenbaum and David J. Wetherall,Prentice Hall;

5th Edition (October 7, 2010). ISBN-10: 0132126958

4. Computer Networks and Internets by Douglas E. Comer, Prentice Hall; 5thEdition (April

28, 2008). ISBN-10: 0136066984

Course code: CS305

Course Name: Web Technologies

Credit Hours: 3

Prerequisites: Programming Fundamentals

Course Outline:

Introduction, Web Basics, Servlets and Sessions, Java Server Pages, XML and the Web

Database Access for Web Applications, Design Patterns for Web Applications, Security

and Privacy, Performance and Scalability, Performance Analysis, WAP Protocol, Wireless

application development, Android Programming.

Note: Concepts should be implemented using Java language, if possible

Reference Materials:

1. Web Engineering: A Practitioners’ Approach, Roger S. Pressman, McGraw Hill (2008)

or Latest Edition

2. Web Engineering: The Discipline of Systematic Development of WebApplications,

GertiKappel, Birgit Prýýll, Siegfried Reich and WernerRetschitzegger, McGraw-Hill,

(2006) or Latest Edition

3. Web Engineering, Emilia Mendes and Nile Mosley, Springer Verlag,(2010) or Latest

Edition.

Part: A (Functional English): Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Course Contents: Basics of Grammar: Parts of speech and use of articles, Sentence structure, active and passive voice; Practice in unified sentence, Analysis of phrase, Clause and sentence structure, Transitive and intransitive verbs; Punctuation and spelling. Comprehension: Answers to questions on a given text. Discussion: General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students). Listening: To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills: Urdu to English. Paragraph writing: Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills: Introduction & practice to improve presentation skills. Part: B (Communication Skills): Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Course Contents: Paragraph writing: Practice in writing a good, unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing: Introduction, Descriptive, narrative, discursive, argumentative CV and job application: Translation skills: Urdu to English. Study skills: Skimming and scanning, intensive and extensive, and speed reading, summary and précis writing and comprehension. Academic skills: Letter/memo writing, minutes of meetings, use of library and internet. NOTE: Documentaries to be shown for discussion and review. Part: C (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills): Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. Course Contents: Presentation skills: Essay writing: Descriptive, narrative, discursive, argumentative Academic writing: How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper, (emphasis on style, content, language, form, clarity, consistency). Technical Report writing: Progress report writing: NOTE: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building.

NOTE: Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. 1. Demonstration of the preparation and staining of slides. 2. Histological examination of slides: Epithelium, Muscle tissue and Connective tissue. 3. Organ system: Lung, Kidney, Stomach, Appendix, Skin, Intestine and Gall bladder.

Course Objectives: After the completion of this course the students should be able to understand the basic structure of various organs of our body not only at gross level but also at tissues or cell level

1. INTRODUCTION: ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY: Definition. Cell, tissue, organ system.

2. STRUCTURE OF CELL: Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm, Organelles, Nucleus, Cell cycle.

3. TISSUES OF BODY: Types of tissues with examples;

a. Epithelial Tissue: General characters, classification.

b. Connective Tissue: Structure and types of Connective tissue and Cartilage.

c. Bones: Structure and types of bones and joints.

d. Muscles: Structure of skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.

4. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM:

a. Skin Structure: (Epidermis, dermis).

b. Glands of Skin: (Sweat, Sebaceous).

c. Hair: Structure, function.

d. Nail: Structure, function.

5. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:

a. Heart: Structure of Heart, Location of Heart, Blood Supply to Heart.

b. Blood Vessels: Main blood vessels arising & entering the heart. Types of blood vessels

with examples.

6. ALIMENTARY SYSTEM: Name and structure of different parts of alimentary system and their inter-relationship. 7. URINARY SYSTEM: Name and structure of organs of urinary system and their inter-relationship.

8. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Male and Female reproductive systems. Name, structure and association of the organs.

9. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:

a. Pituitary gland: Structure and relation to hypothalamus.

b. Thyroid gland: Structure.

c. Adrenal gland: Structure.

10. NERVOUS SYSTEM: Introduction: Cells of Nervous System (Neuron), Accessory cells of N.S. and Organization of N.S.

(a) Brain; Meninges (Cerebrum cerebral Lobes. Ventricles, Cerebellum Anatomy of Cerebellum, Brain Stem Mid-Brain. Pons. Medulla Oblongata, Diencephalon. Thalamus Hypothalamus and Cranial Nerves).

(b) Spinal Cord Meninges (C.S.F. Internal Structure, Sensory and Motor Pathway, Spinal Reflexes, Peripheral spinal Nerves, Autonomic Nervous System includes Sympathetic N.S. and Parasympathetic Nervous System).

11. HISTOLOGY (Theory):

(a) Underlying principles of histological techniques and staining specific tissues should be explained.

(b) Staining of paraffin and frozen sections will be given to the students.

(c) Most of the teaching should be done on stained and mounted sections and every type of normal tissue will be covered.

NOTE: Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g. Experimental Physiology includes:

1. BLOOD: Determination of Haemoglobin (Hb), Determination of ESR, RBC Count, WBC Count, DLC (Differential Leucocyte Count), Bleeding Time, Coagulation Time and Blood groups.

2. RESPIRATION: Estimation of vital capacity and its relation to posture and standard vital capacity, Determination of Tidal volume and Demonstration of Artificial Respiration.

3. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: Recording of Arterial Pulse, Recording of Arterial Blood Pressure and Electro-cardiogram.

4. SENSORY SYTEM: Visual activity, far vision, near vision and Field of vision (Perimetry).

5. NEURAL CONTROL MECHANISM: Nerve Muscle Preparation in frog, Effect of Temperature on muscle and Demonstration of spinal reflexes.

Course objective: After the completion of this course the students should be able to describe all the basic physiological processes which are the basis of pathophysiology of various diseases and their ultimate link with pharmacology for their treatment.

1. BASIC CELL FUNCTIONS:

a. Chemical composition of the body: Atoms, Molecules, Ions, Free Radicals, Polar Molecules, Solutions, Classes of Organic Molecules

b. Cell structure: Microscopic Observation of Cell, Microscopic, Cell Organelles, Cytoskeleton.

c. Protein activity and cellular metabolism: Binding Site Characteristics, Regulation of Binding site Characteristics, Chemical Reactions, Enzymes, Regulation of Enzyme-Mediated Reactions, Multi-enzyme metabolic Pathways, ATP, Cellular Energy Transfer,Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Metabolism, Essential Nutrients.

d. Genetic information and Protein Synthesis: Genetic Code, Protein Synthesis, Protein, Degradation, Protein Secretion, Replication and Expression of Genetic Information, Cancer, Genetic Engineering.

e. Movement of Molecules across Cell Membranes: Diffusion, Mediated- Transport Systems, Osmosis, Endocytosis and Exocytosis, Epithelial Transport.

2. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM:

a. Homeostatic Mechanisms and Cellular Communication: General Characteristics, Components of Homeostatic Control Systems, Intercellular Chemical Messengers, Processes Related to Homeostasis, Receptors, single Transduction Pathways.

b. Neural Control Mechanisms: Structure and Maintenance of Neurons, Functional Classes of Neurons, Glial Cells, Neural Growth and Regeneration, Basic Principles of Electricity, The resting Membrane Potential, Graded Potentials and Action Potentials, Functional Anatomy of synapses, Activation of the Postsynaptic Cell, Synaptic Effectiveness, Neurotransmitters and Neuro-modulators, Neuro-effector communication, Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord Central Nervous System: Brain, Peripheral Nervous System, Blood Supply, Blood-Brain Barrier phenomenon, and Cerebrospinal fluid.

c. The Sensory Systems: Receptors, Neural Pathways in Sensory System, Association Cortex and Perceptual Processing, Primary Sensory Coding, Somatic Sensation, Visio, Hearing, Vestibular System, Chemical Senses.

d. Principles of Hormonal Control Systems: Hormone Structures and Synthesis, Hormone Transport in the Blood, Hormone Metabolism and Excretion, Mechanisms of Hormone Action, Inputs that control Hormone Secretion, Control Systems Involving the Hypothalamus and Pituitary, candidate Hormones, type of Endocrine Disorders.

e. Muscle: Structure, Molecular Mechanisms of Contraction, Mechanics of Single fiber Contraction, Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism, Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers, Whole Muscle Contraction, Structure, Contraction and its Control.

f. Control of Body Movement: Motor Control Hierarchy, Local control of Motor Neurons, The Brain Motor Centers and the Descending Pathways they Control, Muscle Tone, Maintenance of Upright Posture and Balance, Walking.

g. Consciousness and Behavior: State of consciousness, conscious Experiences, Motivation and Emotion, Altered State of Consciousness, Learning and Memory, Cerebral Dominance and language Conclusion.

3. COORDINATED BODY FUNCTIONS:

a. Circulation: Plasma, the Blood Cell, Pressure, flow and resistance, Anatomy, Heartbeat coordination, Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle, The Cardiac output, Measurement of Cardiac Function, Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, veins, The Lymphatic system, Baroreceptor Reflexes, Blood Volume and Long term Regulation of Arterial Pressure, Other Cardiovascular Reflexes and Responses, Hemorrhage and Other Causes of Hypotension, the Upright Posture, Exercise, Hypertension, Heart Failure, Coronary Artery Disease and Heart Attacks, Formation of Platelet Plug, Blood coagulation: Clot Formation, Anticlotting systems, Anticlotting Drugs.b. Respiration: Organization of the Respiratory System, Ventilation and Lung Mechanics, Exchange of Gases in Alveoli and tissues, Transport of Oxygen in Blood, Transport of Carbon dioxide in Blood, Transport of Hydrogen ions between Tissues and Lungs, Control of Respiration, Hypoxia, Nonrespiratory Functions of the Lungs.

c. The kidneys and Regulation of Water and Inorganic Ions: Renal Functions, Structure of the Kidneys and Urinary System, Basic Renal Process, The Concept of Renal Clearance Micturition, Total Body Balance of sodium and Water Basic Renal Process for sodium and Water, Renal Sodium Regulation, Renal Water regulation, A Summary Example: the response to Sweating, Thirst and Salt Appetite, Potassium Regulation, Effector Sites for Calcium Homeostasis, Hormonal controls, Metabolic Bone Disease, Source of Hydrogen Ion Gain or Loss, Buffering of Hydrogen Ions in the Body, Integration of Homeostatic Controls, Renal Mechanisms, Classification of Acidosis and Alkalosis, Diuretics, Kidney Disease.

d. The Digestion and Absorption of Food (Overview): Functions of the Gastrointestinal Organs, Structure of the Gastrointestinal Tract Wall, Digestion and Absorption, Regulation of Gastrointestinal Processes, Pathophysiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

e. Regulation of Organic Metabolism, Growth, and Energy Balance: Events of the Absorptive and Postabsorptive States, Endocrine and Neural Control of the Absorptive and Postabsorptive States, Fuel Homeostasis in Exercise and Stress Diabetes Mellitus, Hypoglycemia as a Cause of Symptoms, Regulation of Plasma Cholesterol, Bone Growth, Environmental Factors, Influencing Growth, Hormonal Influences on Growth, compensatory Growth, Basic Concepts of Energy Expenditure, Regulation of Total Body Energy Stores, Regulation of Body Temperature.

f. Reproduction: General Principles of Gametogenesis, Anatomy, Spermatogenesis, Transport of Sperm, Hormonal control of Male Reproductive Functions, Anatomy, Ovarian Function, Control of Ovarian Function, Uterine Changes in the Menstrual Cycle, Other Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone, Androgens in Women, Female Sexual Response, Pregnancy, Sex Determination, Sex Differentiation, Puberty, Menopause.

g. Defense Mechanisms of the Body: Cells Mediating Immune Defenses, Nonspecific Immune Defenses, Specific Immune Defenses, Systemic Manifestations of Infection Factors that Alter the Body’s Resistance to Infection, Harmful Immune Responses, Absorption, Storage Sites, Excretion, Biotransformation, Functions of Cortisol in Stress, Functions of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Stress, Other Hormones Released During Stress Psychological Stress and Disease.

NOTE: Special emphases should be given on the normal physiological values and their changes during respective pathological conditions. Furthermore, the physiological link will be developed with pathology as well as pharmacology.

NOTE: Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g.

1. Experiments to demonstrate some of Physico-chemical processes like simple distillation, steam distillation, crystallization, dialysis.

2. Determination of Emulsion systems.

3. Determination of particle size.

4. Density, Specific Volume, Weights and Volumes of Liquids.

5. Preparation of Buffer solutions and isotonic solution.

6. Determination of %age composition of solutions by specific gravity method.

7. Partition-coefficient, surface tension, viscosity.

1. PHARMACY ORIENTATION: Introduction and orientation to the Professional of Pharmacy in relation to Hospital Pharmacy, Retail Pharmacy, Industrial Pharmacy, Forensic Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Education and research etc.

2. HISTORY AND LITERATURE OF PHARMACY:

a. A survey of the history of pharmacy through ancient, Greek and Arab periods with special reference to contribution of Muslim scientists to pharmacy and allied sciences.

b. An introduction of various official books.

3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES:

a. Solutions: Introduction, types, concentration expressions, ideal and real solution, colligative properties, their mathematical derivations and applications in pharmacy, molecular weight determinations, distribution co-efficient and its applications in pharmacy.

b. Solubilization: Solubility, factors affecting solubility, surfactants, their properties and types. Micelles, their formulation and types.

c. Adsorption: Techniques and processes of adsorption in detail.

d. Ionization: pH, pH indicators, pka, buffers, buffer’s equation, Isotonic solutions and their applications in pharmacy.

e. Hydrolysis: Types and protection of drugs against hydrolysis.

f. Micromeritics: Particle size and shapes, distribution of particles methods of determination of particle size and importance of particle size in Pharmacy.

4. DISPERSIONS:

a) Colloids: Types, methods of preparation, properties (optional, kinetic, electrical) Dialysis and artificial kidney, stability of colloids, protection and sensitization phenomenon and application of colloids in Pharmacy.

b) Emulsions: Types, theories of emulsification, Emulsifying agents their classification and stability of emulsion.

c) Suspensions: Type, Methods of Preparation, Properties, Suspending agents, their classification and stability.

5. RHEOLOGY: Definition and Fundamental concept; Properties contributing to Rheological behaviour; Graphic presentation of Rheological data.

6. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROCESSES:

a. Precipitation: Process of precipitation and its applications in Pharmacy.

b. Crystallization: Types of crystals, Mechanism and methods of crystallization and its applications in Pharmacy.

c. Distillation: Simple, fractional, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, destructive distillation and their applications in Pharmacy.

d. Miscellaneous Processes: Efflorescence, deliquescence, lyophillization, elutrition, exiccation,

ignition, sublimation, fusion, calcination, adsorption, decantation, evaporation, vaporization, centrifugation, dessication, levigation and trituration.

7. EXTRACTION PROCESSES:

a. Maceration: Purpose & process.

b. Percolation: Purpose and Process.

c. Liquid-Liquid extraction: Purpose and Process.

d. Large scale extraction: Purpose and Process.

8. RATE AND ORDER OF REACTIONS:

9. KINETIC PRINCIPLES AND STABILITY TESTING:

THEORETIC CONSIDERATIONS: (Degradation)

a. Physical Factors: Influence of pH, temperature, ionic strength, acid-base catalysis, U.V. light.

b. Chemical Factors: Complex chemical reactions. Oxidation-reduction reactions, Hydrolysis

Qualitative analysis of: Carbohydrates, Amino acids, Peptides and Sugar, Uric acid, Proteins, Lipids and Sterols (Cholesterol), Bile salts, Billirubin, Analysis of Cholesterol and Creatinine in Blood. Quantitative analysis of: Carbohydrates-Glucose (reducing sugar) and any other carbohydrate using Benedict and Anthrone method, Amino acids, Peptides and Proteins using Biuret and Ninhydrin (Spectrophotometric) method. Analysis of normal and abnormal components of Urine-Sugar, Uric acid, Billirubin, Cholesterol and Creatinine.

1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND BASIC BIOCHEMICAL PRINCIPLES:

Role of pharmaceutical biochemistry in the health profession. Nature of biochemical reactions.

2. BASIC CHEMISTRY OF BIOMOLECULES (Nature, Classification etc.):

a) Carbohydrates: Chemistry, Classification, Reactions of Carbohydrates, Optical activity, Biological and pharmaceutical importance of carbohydrates.

b) Lipids: Chemistry of Fatty acids and Lipids, Classification (Saponifiable and non-saponifiable lipids, Simple, Complex and Derived lipids), Reactions of Fatty acids and other Lipids, Essential fatty acids, Biological and pharmaceutical importance of lipids.

c) Proteins and Amino acids: Chemistry, Classification of proteins and amino acids, Reactions of proteins and amino acids, Organizational levels, Macromolecular nature of proteins, Biological and pharmaceutical importance of proteins and amino acids.

d) Nucleic acids: Chemistry, Types (DNA, RNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA), Purine and Pyrimidine bases, Nucelosides, Nucelotides, Structures of nucleic acids, Biological and pharmaceutical importance of nucleic acids.

e) Vitamins: Chemistry, Classification (Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins), Biological and pharmaceutical importance of vitamins.

f) Hormones: Chemistry, Classification (Proteinous and nonproteinous hormones, amino acid derivatives, steroids), Biological and pharmaceutical importance of hormones.

g) Enzymes: Chemistry, Classification, Mode of action, Kinetics (Michaelis Menten Equation and some modifications), Inhibition, Activation, Specificity, Allosteric enzymes, Factors affecting the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, Biological and pharmaceutical importance, Mechanism of action of some important enzymes (Chymotrypsin, Ribonuclease).

3. METABOLIC FATE OF BIOMOLECULES (Anabolism and Catabolism):

a) Carbohydrates: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, Aerobic and anaerobic breakdown of Glucose, Glycolysis, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Glycogenolysis, Glycogenesis, Gluconeogenesis, Citric acid cycle, Energetics of various metabolic processes.

b) Lipids: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of lipids, Oxidation of fatty acids through β-oxidation, Biosynthesis of fatty acids, neutral lipids and cholesterol.

c) Proteins and Amino acids: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of proteins and amino acids, Metabolism of essential and non-essential amino acids, Biosynthesis and catabolism of Haemins and porphyrin compounds.

d) Bioenergetics: Principles of bioenergetics. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation.

4. REGULATION OF METABOLIC PROCESSES:

a. Role of Vitamins: Physiological role of Fat-soluble (A, D, E and K) and Water-soluble (Thiamin, Riboflavin, Pantothenic acid, Niacin, Pyridoxal phosphate, Biotin, Folic acid, Cyanocobalamin- members of B-complex family and Ascorbic acid), Coenzymes and their role in the regulation of metabolic processes.

b. Receptor mediated regulation (Hormones): Mechanism of action of hormones, Physiological roles of various hormones, Site of synthesis and target sites of hormones. c. Secondary Messengers: Role of cAMP, Calcium ions and phosphoinositol in the regulation of metabolic processes. d. Gene Expression: Replication, Transcription and Translation (Gene expression) Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Basic principles of Recombinant DNA technology, Pharmaceutical applications, Balance of Catabolic, Anabolic and Amphibolic processes in human metabolism, Acid-Base and Electrolyte Balance in Human body.

5. INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Introduction and Importance of the clinical chemistry. Laboratory tests in diagnosis of diseases including Uric acid, Cholesterol, Billirubin and Creatinine.

NOTE: Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g.

1. Organic analysis: Identification of unknown simple organic compounds.

2. Organic Preparations: Benzoic acid, Aspirin, Acetanilide, Iodoform, Nitrophenol, 3-nitrophthalic acid, Benzhydrol and 2, 4-Dinitrochlorobenzene.

1. BASIC CONCEPTS: Chemical Bonding and concept of Hybridization, Conjugation, Resonance (Mesomerism), Hyperconjugation, Aromaticity, Inductive effect, Electromeric effect, Hydrogen bonding, Steric effect, Effect of structure on reactivity of compounds, Tautomerism of Carbonyl Compounds, Nomenclature of Organic Compounds.

2. STEREOCHEMISTRY/CONFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS: Stereoisomerism, optical isomerism; Molecules with more than one chiral center Geometrical isomerism, Resolution of racemic mixture, Conformational analysis.

3. GENERAL METHODS OF PREPARATION, PROPERTIES, IDENTIFICATION TEST AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE FOLLOWING CLASSES AND THEIR ANALOGUES:

a. Alkane, Alkenes, Alkynes, Aromatic compounds

b. Alkyl halide, Alcohol, phenols, ethers, amines

c. Ketones, Aldehydes

d. Acids, Esters, Amides and derivatives

4. NUCLEOPHILIC, ELECTROPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTION IN ALIPHATIC AND AROMATIC SYSTEMS:

5. ORIENTATION IN ELECTROPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS ON BENZENE RING:

6. HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY:

a. Preparation and properties of medicinally important Heterocyclic Compounds such as pyrol, furan, thiophene, pyridine, pyrimidine and pyrazine.

b. Preparation and properties of hetrocyclic compounds in which benzo-ring is fused with five and six membered ring containing one hetero atom; Indole, Quinoline and Isoquinoline.

7. REACTION MECHANISM:

Organic Reaction Mechanism: Arndt-Eistert reaction, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation, Diels Alder reaction; Grignard’s reaction, Metal Hydride reduction and Wolff Kishner reduction, Friedel Craft’s reaction, Perkin reaction, Cannizzaro’s reaction, Mannich reaction.

8. REACTIVE INTERMEDIATE AND FREE RADICALS:

a. Introduction: Generation, stability and reaction of the following Intermediates;

Carbocations, Carbanions, Carbenes, Nitrenes, Benzynes,

b. Types of reactions: An Overview.

c. Free radicals: Free radical scavengers and their applications.

9. CARBONIUM ION REARRANGEMENTS:

Pinacol-Pinacolone, Wagner-Meerwein, Wolff, Hofmann and Beckmann rearrangements.

10. CARBANIONS REARRANGEMENTS:

Condensation reaction (Aldol condensation, Favorskii rearrangement, Wittig rearrangement).

1. ALGEBRA:

(a) Solution of Linear and Quadratic Equations. Equations reducible to Quadratic Form. Solution of simultaneous Equations.

(b) Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic Progressions: Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic Means.

(c) Permutations and Combinations:

(d) Binomial Theorem: Simple application.

2. TRIGONOMETRY: Measurement of angles in Radian and Degrees. Definitions of circular functions. Derivation of circular function for simple cases.

3. ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY: Coordinates of point in a plane. Distance between two points in a plane. Locus, Equations of straight line, Equation of Parabola, Circle and Ellips.

4. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: Functions, variations in functions, limits, differential coefficient, differentiation of algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions, partial derivatives. Maxima and minima values. Points of inflexion.

5. INTEGRAL CALCULUS: Concept of integration Rules of integration. Integration of algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions by using different techniques, and numerical integration.

NOTE: Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities e.g. Introduction of the entire and broken parts of the plant drugs (Macro and organoleptic characters) and Microscopic examination of powders and sections of plant drugs. (Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted). A Study Tour will be an integral part of the syllabus and will be arranged at the end of the session for collection of medicinal plants from the country.

1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION: Historical development and scope of Pharmacognosy. Terminology used in Pharmacognosy. An introduction of traditional systems (Unani, Ayurvedic and Homoeopathic systems of medicine) with special reference to medicinal plants. Introduction to herbal pharmacopoeia and modern concepts about Pharmacognosy.

2. Crude Drugs: Preparation of crude drugs for commercial market. Chemical and Therapeutic classification of crude drugs (Official & Un-official drugs). Methods of Cultivation, Drying, Storage, Preservation and Packing.

3. THE STUDY OF THE CRUDE DRUGS BELONGING TO VARIOUS FAMILIES OF MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE

S. No. Families Crude Drugs a.

Ranunculaceae

Aconitum, Larkspur, Pulsatilla, Hydrastis b.

Papaveraceae

Papaver somniferum, Sanguinaria, Canadensis c.

Leguminosae

Acacia, Glycyrrhiza, Senna, Cassia, Tamarind d.

Umbelliferae

Fennel, Carum, Coriander, Conium, Asafoetida e.

Apocynaceae

Rauwolfia, Catharanthus

f.

Asclepiadaceae

Gymnema sylvestre, Calotropis gigantea g.

Compositae

Artemisia, Silybum marianum, Echinaceae, Arctium lappa h.

Solanaceae

Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, Stramonium, Capsicum i.

Scrophulariaceae

Digitalis, Verbascum (Mullien). j.

Labiatae

Peppermint, Thyme, Spearmint, Salvia, Ocimum k.

Liliaceae

Garlic, Colchicum, Aloe l.

Zingiberaceae

Ginger, Curcuma

4. EVALUATION AND ADULTERATION OF CRUDE DRUGS: Evaluation of crude drugs i.e., Organoleptic, Microscopic, Physical, Chemical and Biological. Deterioration and Adulteration of crude drugs. Types of adulteration, inferiority, spoilage, admixture, sophistication and substitution of crude drugs.

NOTE: Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the theoretical topics and availability of the facilities e.g.

1. Preparation of standard solution, Ringers’ solution, Tyrode solution, Kreb solution, Normal saline.

2. To demonstrate the effects of sympathomimetic (Adrenaline) and sympatholytic drugs (Propranolol) on Frog’s heart.

3. To demonstrate the effects of parasympathomimetic (Acetylcholine) and parasympatholytic (Atropine) drugs on Frog’s heart.

4. To demonstrate the effects of an unknown drug on Frog’s heart. Routes of Administration of drugs.

5. To demonstate the effects of vasconstrictor drugs on Frog’s blood vessels.

6. To demonstrate the effects of stimulant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Acetyl choline, Barium chloride). To demonstrate the effects of depressant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Atropine).

7. To differentiate the effects of an unknown drug on Rabbit’s intestine and identify the (unknown) drug. To study the effects of Adrenaline on Rabbit’s Eyes.

8. To study the effects of Homatropine on Rabbit’s Eyes.

9. To study the effects of Pilocarpine on Rabbit’s Eyes.

10. To study the effects of Local Anaesthetic drug (e.g Cocaine) on Rabbit’s Eyes.

11. To identify the unknown drug & differentiate its effects on Rabbit’s Eyes.

12. To demonstrate emetic effects of various drugs in pigeons

(Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted).

1. GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY:

a) Pharmacology: Definition of Pharmacology, history and its various branches. Definition of Drug and its various sources.

b) Routes of drug administration, advantages and disadvantages.

c) Pharmacokinetics: Drug solubility and passage of drug across the biological membranes. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs and factors affecting them. Various pharmacokinetic parameters including volume of distribution (Vd), clearance (Cl), Biological half life (t1/2β) Bioavailability and various factors affecting it. Dose, Efficacy and Potency of drugs. Hypersensitivity and Idiosyncratic reactions, drug tolerance and dependence. Drug interactions. Plasma protein binding.

d) Pharmacodynamics: How drugs act? Receptors and their various types with special reference to their molecular structures. Cell surface receptors, signal transduction by cell surface receptors, signaling Mediated by intra cellular receptors, target cell and hyper sensitization, Pharmacological effects not Mediated by receptors (for example anesthetics and cathartics) Ion channel, enzymes, carrier proteins, Drug receptor interactions and theories of drug action. Agonist, antagonist, partial agonist, inverse agonist. Receptors internalization and receptors co-localization. Physiological Antagonism, Pharmacological Antagonism (competitive and non-competitive), Neutralization Antagonism, Neurotransmission and neuro-modulation. Specificity of drug action and factors modifying the action & dosage of drugs. Median lethal dose (LD:50), Median effective dose (ED:50) and Therapeutic Index, Dose-response relationships.

2. DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS):

a. Organization of ANS its subdivisions and innervations.

b. Neurotransmitters in ANS, their synthesis, release and fate.

c. Sympathetic agonists: Catecholamines and Noncatecholamines.

d. Sympathetic antagonists: Adrenergic receptor Blockers and neuron blockers.

e. Parasympathetic (Cholinergic) agonists and cholinesterase enzyme inhibitors (anticholinesterases) Parasympathetic antagonists.

f. Ganglion stimulants and Ganglion blockers

g. Neuromuscular Blockers

3. DRUGS ACTING ON GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT:

a. Emetic and anti-emetics

b. Purgatives

c. Anti-diarrheal agents

d. Treatment of Peptic & duodenal ulcer: Antacids, H2-Receptor antagonists, antimuscarinic agents, proton pump inhibitors, prostaglandin antagonists, gastrin receptor antagonist and cytoprotective agents

e. Drug treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases

f. Drugs affecting bile flow and Cholelithiasis

NOTE:

1. Only an introduction will be given of the banned and obsolete drug products.

2. While dealing with Pharmacology stress should be laid to the group actions of related drugs and only important differences should be discussed of the individual drugs placed in same group.

3. Newly introduced drugs should be included in the syllabus while drugs with no clinical and therapeutic values ought to be excluded from syllabus at any time.

4. The prototype drugs in each group from the latest edition of the recommended books.

NOTE: Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g. Sterilization of Glassware and pharmaceutical products by various methods. Microbiological assays of anti-biotics and vitamins. Preparation of general and selective Media and culturing of microorganisms. Total and viable counts of micro-organism. Morphological and selective biochemical characterization of some specimen. Staining of Bacteria: Gram method, Acid fast, Giemasas staining, Capsule staining, Flagella staining and Spore staining. Microbiological analysis of air, water and soil (Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted).

NOTE: The topics will be taught with special reference to their Pharmaceutical applications.

1. GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY: Historical Introduction, Scope of Microbiology with special reference to Pharmaceutical Sciences. Nomenclature and classification of Micro-organisms.

2. MICRO-ORGANISMS:

a) The Bacteria: General and cellular Morphology, structure and function. Classification of Bacteria. Growth curve, growth factors and growth characteristics. Nutrition Requirements and Nutrition factors affecting growth. Culture Media, Bacterial cultures and staining methods.

b) The Viruses: Introduction, Classification (and detail of at least one species from every group), cultivation and replication.

c) The Fungi/Yeast/Molds:

d) The Protozoa:

3. THE NORMAL FLORA:

(a) Microbiology of air, water and soil (general introduction and normal inhibitants of air, water and soil). (b) Normal flora of Skin, Intestinal tract, Ear, Nose etc.

NOTE: Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities e.g. Preparation of simple syrup, Orange syrup, Ferrous sulphate syrup, Cod Liver oil Emulsion, Liquid paraffin Emulsion, Throat paint (Mandle’s paint), Boroglycerine glycerite, Tannic acid glycerin, Spirit ammonia aromatic, Spirit of Ethyl Nitrite. Preparation of Methyl salicylate ointment, Sulphur ointment, Calamine lotion, Iodine tincture, Preparations of oral hygiene products, Poultice of Kaolin, Effervescent granules, Distilled Water for Injections (A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted).

1. PHARMACEUTICAL CALCULATIONS: Some Fundamentals of Measurements and Calculations. The Metric System. The Common Systems. Conversions. Calculation of Doses. Percentage calculations, Reducing and Enlarging Formulas. Weights and Volumes of Liquids. HLB Values. Industrial Calculations. Calculations involving parenteral admixtures. Some calculations involving Hydrogen-ion concentration. Calculations involving isotonic, electrolyte and buffer solutions.

2. INTRODUCTION: Dosage form, Ingredient, Product formulation.

3. GALENICAL PREPARATIONS: Infusions, Decoctions, Extracts, Fluid extracts, Tinctures, Aromatic waters.

4. SOLVENTS USED IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS:

5. ORAL SOLUTIONS, SYRUPS, ELIXIRS AND SPIRITS: Solutions: their preparation, dry mixtures for solution, oral rehydrate solutions, oral colonic lavage solution. Syrup: components and preparation of syrups. Elixirs: Preparation of elixirs, Medicated and non-Medicated elixirs. Spirits: Preparation of Spirits.

6. ORAL SUSPENSIONS, EMULSIONS, MAGMA AND GELS: Preparations, examples and importance.

7. TOPICAL AND TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: Introduction of Ointments, Creams, Pastes, Poultice, Plasters, Lotions, Liniments, Topical gels, Topical Tinctures, Collodions, Topical solutions, Topical powders, Percutaneous absorption, Transdermal systems in use.

8. OPHTHALMIC, NASAL AND OTIC PREPARATIONS: Ophthalmic solutions, suspensions, ointment, inserts, contact lens solutions. Nasal decongestant solutions, Decongestant inhalers. Ear preparations: Anti-infective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic.

Course Objectives: This course is aimed

a. to provide Basic information about Islamic Studies

b. to enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization

c. to improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships

d. to enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues Related to faith and religious life.

1. INTRODUCTION TO QURANIC STUDIES:

1. Basic Concepts of Quran

2. History of Quran

3. Uloom-ul -Quran

2. STUDY OF SELECTED TEXT OF HOLLY QURAN:

1. Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith (Verse No. 284-286).

2. Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No. 1-18).

3. Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No. 1-11).

4. Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No. 63-77).

5. Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam (Verse No. 152-154).

3. STUDY OF SELECTED TEXT OF HOLLY QURAN:

1. Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab-al-Nabi (Verse No. 6, 21, 40, 56, 57, 58).

2. Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18, 19, 20) Related to thinking, Day of Judgment.

3. Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar, Tadabar (Verse No. 1, 14).

4. SEERAT OF HOLY PROPHET (S.A.W) I:

1. Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood)

2. Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) in Makkah

3. Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) in Makkah

5. SEERAT OF HOLY PROPHET (S.A.W) II:

1. Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) in Madina

2. Important Events of Life Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) in Madina

3. Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) in Madina

6. INTRODUCTION TO SUNNAH:

1. Basic Concepts of Hadith

2. History of Hadith

3. Kinds of Hadith

4. Uloom –ul-Hadith

5. Sunnah & Hadith

6. Legal Position of Sunnah

7. SELECTED STUDY FROM TEXT OF HADITH: 8. INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC LAW & JURISPRUDENCE:

1. Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence

2. History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence

3. Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence

4. Nature of Differences in Islamic Law

5. Islam and Sectarianism

9. ISLAMIC CULTURE & CIVILIZATION:

1. Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization

2. Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization

3. Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization

4. Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues

10. ISLAM & SCIENCE:

1. Basic Concepts of Islam & Science

2. Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science

3. Quranic & Science

11. ISLAMIC ECONOMIC SYSTEM:

1. Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System

2. Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics

3. Islamic Concept of Riba

4. Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce

12. POLITICAL SYSTEM OF ISLAM:

1. Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System

2. Islamic Concept of Sovereignty

3. Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam

13. ISLAMIC HISTORY:

1. Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida

2. Period of Ummayyads

3. Period of Abbasids

14. SOCIAL SYSTEM OF ISLAM:

1. Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam

2. Elements of Family

3. Ethical Values of Islam

Course Code: PESS 521

Course Name: Sports Nutrition

Credit Hours: 3

Objectives:  

The outlines of this course have been designed to provide adequate knowledge to the students with the purpose to acquaint them with the fabrics of sports nutrition to be administered to Athletes regarding carbohydrates, fats, protein and vitamins process of digestion, absorption, metabolism, muscular activity and recommendations to specific group of sports persons.

Course Contents: Introduction, Nutrition and nutrients, Nutrients present in food, Carbohydrate, Fats, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals, Water, Nutrients Loading as Energy, Process of digestion and absorption, Fats,Carbohydrate, Proteins, Carbohydrate and Performance, Deciding What Food to Eat, Energy Metabolisms, Aerobic Metabolism, Anaerobic Metabolism, Energy into Muscular Activity, How is Energy used in Exercise, Exercise duration, Exercise Type, Fluid and Athletics, Temperature regulation during Exercise, Factors influences fluid absorption, Adequate hydration before, during and after exercise, Dehydration its causes & prevention, Vitamins and Minerals, The involvement of vitamins and minerals in human body functions, Facts and Misconceptions about the use of vitamins and minerals, Nutritional Advice for Specific Group of Athletes, Pre contest ,during and post contest meal, Dietary recommendations for better health and physical performance, Diet for athletes, Weight Management, Concept of dieting, Physiological factors of weight management. 

Reference Material: Mary Anderson. A Complete Guide to Fitness, Sports & Nutrition. Edition 2007, Reader Digest Association Limited. Eating for Good Health, Robert Wildman, Barry Miller. Sports and Fitness Nutrition 1997, Mughal,s Publication. Sports Nutrition.